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Bibliography of invasive alien fauna & flora in South Africa - list of publications on IAPs - (this will open a PDF document in a new window)
For detailed inventory of invader plants in RSA (with maps and photos) visit

MAP (click on province for worst species in each)


Invading alien plants (IAPs) are the single biggest threat to plant and animal biodiversity. IAPs have become established in over 10 million hectares of land in South Africa. The cost of controlling IAPs in South Africa is estimated at R600 million a year over 20 years. If IAPs are left uncontrolled, the problem will double within 15 years. IAPs waste 7% of our water resources; reduce our ability to farm; intensify flooding and fires; cause erosion, destruction of rivers, siltation of dams and estuaries, and poor water quality and can cause a mass extinction of indigenous plants and animals.


750 tree species and 8 000 herbaceous species introduced into South Africa
1 000 introduced species are naturalised, 200 are invasive
84 species introduced from South and Central America
14 from North America
30 from Australia
29 from Europe
36 from Asia
45% of species from Australia have become important pests


WfW Research Strategy [PDF - 304KB]



Resource economics:



    • Fatoki, O. B. (2007). Monitoring the re-growth rate of alien vegetation after fire on Agulhas Plain, South Africa. Department of Geography, University of Stellenbosch. MSc thesis: 68 pp.
    • Jasson, R. (2005). Management of Acacia species seed banks in the Table Mountain National Park, Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Department of Conservation Ecology, University of Stellenbosch. MSc thesis: 72 pp.
    • Vosse, S. (2007). The restoration potential of fynbos riparian seed banks after alien clearing. Department of Conservation Ecology & Entomology, University of Stellenbosch. MSc thesis: 201 pp.
    • Law, M. C. (2007). Willingness to pay for the control of water hyacinth in an urban environment of South Africa. Faculty of Commerce. Grahamstown, Rhodes University. MComm thesis: 135 pp.
    • Marais, C. (1998). An economic evaluation of invasive alien plant control programmes in the mountain catchment areas of the Western Cape province, South Africa. Faculty of Forestry, University of Stellenbosch. PhD thesis: 189 pp.
    • Te Roller, K.S. (2004). Evaluating success of an integrated control programme of Hakea sericea Shrader (Proteaceae) in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa through cartographic analysis. MSc thesis. University of Stellenbosch. 64 pp.
    • Ralston, S. (2004). The role of legislation in the management of invasive alien plants: human dimensions affecting the implementation of legal instruments on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. MSc thesis. Percy Fitzpatrick Institute, University of Cape Town, 50pp.
    • Magoba, R.N.N. (2005). Effect of invasion and clearing of alien riparian vegetation on benthic macroinvertebrate and adult Odonata assemblages in Soutpansberg rivers. MSc thesis, University of Stellenbosch, 127 pp.
    • Cochran, A.N. (2005). Colour infra-red imagery as a medium for mapping alien vegetation. MSc thesis, Department of Geography & Environmental Management, University of Johannesburg. 52 pp.
    • Cobbing, B. L. (2006). The use of Landsat ETM imagery as a suitable data capture source for alien Acacia species for the Working for Water programme. MSc thesis, Department of Geography, Rhodes University, 146 p.
    • Wannenburgh, A.M. (2006). a systematic spatial prioritization for invasive alien plant control in South Africa. MSc thesis. Department of Environmental & Geographical Science, University of Cape Town, 107pp.
    • Guthrie, G. (2007). Impacts of the invasive reed Arundo donax on biodiversity at the community-ecosystem level. MSc thesis. Biodiversity & Conservation Biology Department, University of the Western Cape, 156pp.
    • Krug, R. M. (2008). Modelling Seed Dispersal in Restoration and Invasions. Ph.D. thesis, Stellenbosch University.


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